Dyn Audio Esotar² 430 Midrange

Up for test is the Dyn Audio Esotar² 430 Midrange.  Manufacturer specifications and datasheet can be found here (click link).

dyn 430

 

Thiele-Small and Impedance

Electrical Parameters
Re 4.33 Ohm electrical voice coil resistance at DC
Le 0.137 mH frequency independent part of voice coil inductance
L2 0.234 mH para-inductance of voice coil
R2 2.66 Ohm electrical resistance due to eddy current losses
Cmes 130 µF electrical capacitance representing moving mass
Lces 21.4 mH electrical inductance representing driver compliance
Res 26.04 Ohm resistance due to mechanical losses
fs 95.6 Hz driver resonance frequency
Mechanical Parameters
(using test encl.)
Mms 3.659 g mechanical mass of driver diaphragm assembly including air load and voice coil
Mmd (Sd) 3.462 g mechanical mass of voice coil and diaphragm without air load
Rms 1.085 kg/s mechanical resistance of  total-driver losses
Cms 0.757 mm/N mechanical compliance of driver suspension
Kms 1.32 N/mm mechanical stiffness of driver suspension
Bl 5.315 N/A force factor (Bl product)
Loss factors
Qtp 0.289 total Q-factor considering all losses
Qms 2.026 mechanical Q-factor of driver in free air considering Rms only
Qes 0.337 electrical Q-factor of driver in free air considering Re only
Qts 0.289 total Q-factor considering Re and Rms only
Other Parameters
Vas 2.6241 l equivalent air volume of suspension
n0 0.654 % reference efficiency (2 pi-radiation using Re)
Lm 90.36 dB characteristic sound pressure level (SPL at 1m for 1W @ Re)
Lnom 90.01 dB nominal sensitivity (SPL at 1m for 1W @ Zn)
Sd 49.48 cm² diaphragm area

430 IMPEDANCE

 

Klippel Large Signal Analysis (LSI) Results

Displacement Limits thresholds can be changed in Processing property page
X Bl @ Bl min=82% 3.5 mm Displacement limit due to force factor variation
X C @ C min=75% 3.9 mm Displacement limit due to compliance variation
X L @ Z max=10 % >5.2 mm Displacement limit due to inductance variation
X d @ d2=10% 13.9 mm Displacement limit due to IM distortion (Doppler)
Asymmetry (IEC 62458)
Ak 44.37 % Stiffness asymmetry Ak(Xpeak)
Xsym 0.11 mm Symmetry point of Bl(x) at maximal excursion

 

Force factor Bl (X) Bl Symmetry RangeStiffness of suspension Kms (X) Kms Symmetry Range Mechanical compliance Cms (X) Electrical inductance L(X, I=0) Inductance over current L(X=0, I)Distortion analysis  Db (Bl-product), Dc (suspension), Dl (inductance) Increase of voice coil temperature Delta Tv (t) and electrical input power P (t)

 

Frequency Response

The following result is a combination of nearfield and farfield measurements merged at 600hz.  The result is the on-axis measurement at 2.83v/1m.

Dyn Audio Esotar2 430

Unfortunately, I at some point I accidentally wrote over the set of data that included the on and off-axis measurements together, so I had to pull them from a previously posted measurement:

0 30 60

Harmonic Distortion

The following measurement was performed at 1/2 meter.  Not typical of my newer methods of pure nearfield but nevertheless at an output capable of overcoming any ‘floor noise’.  The relative output is 96dB/1m.  I have included higher, odd order distortion at the request of some viewers.

Fundamental + Harmonic distortion components (Relative to 96dB1m)dyn 430 Harmonic distortion (Relative to 96dB1m)

Intermodulated Distortion

These tests were done at 1/2m at a level equal to 96dB/1m.  Please read the titles as they tell you what the graph is illustrating.

Voice Sweep method:

swept voice IMD2 swept voice IMD3

Bass Sweep Method:

bass sweep IMD2 bass sweep Dyn Audio Esotar2 430 Relative third-order intermodulation distortion  ( d3 )

Compression while Voice Sweep Testing:

voice sweep Compression

Aura Sound NS3-193-8A1

I’ve seen the Aura Sound NS3 drivers discussed frequently as a great little driver to use in small spaces, with all sorts of potential uses..  So, naturally, I had to order a few to see for myself.  the results are actually quite nice.  The only real issue I have with using these in my own build is the fact they trade off extension for sensitivity.

Note: I made sure to chamfer the backside of the baffle in order to let this driver breathe a bit more efficiently.  I suggest others do the same or at least consider the implications if they do not.

Shameless plug alert:  Also, if you like what you see here and what to help me out, there’s a Paypal Contribute button at the bottom of each data page.  Every little bit does help.  A person was kind enough to donate $10 last week which helped me get this driver and these results.  🙂

 

Okay, Okay… On with the results…

 

 

 

IMG_5076 IMG_5082 IMG_5079

 

Thiele-Small Results

NS3 IMPEDANCE

Electrical Parameters
Re 7.45 Ohm electrical voice coil resistance at DC
Krm 0.0004 Ohm WRIGHT inductance model
Erm 0.93 WRIGHT inductance model
Kxm 0.0056 Ohm WRIGHT inductance model
Exm 0.78 WRIGHT inductance model
Cmes 197 µF electrical capacitance representing moving mass
Lces 16.22 mH electrical inductance representing driver compliance
Res 37.38 Ohm resistance due to mechanical losses
fs 89 Hz driver resonance frequency
——————
fm 68.3 Hz resonance frequency of driver with additional mass
Mechanical Parameters
(using add. mass)
Mms 4.01 g mechanical mass of driver diaphragm assembly including air load and voice coil
Mmd (Sd) 3.818 g mechanical mass of voice coil and diaphragm without air load
Rms 0.545 kg/s mechanical resistance of  total-driver losses
Cms 0.797 mm/N mechanical compliance of driver suspension
Kms 1.26 N/mm mechanical stiffness of driver suspension
Bl 4.513 N/A force factor (Bl product)
Loss factors
Qtp 0.697 total Q-factor considering all losses
Qms 4.118 mechanical Q-factor of driver in free air considering Rms only
Qes 0.821 electrical Q-factor of driver in free air considering Re only
Qts 0.684 total Q-factor considering Re and Rms only
Other Parameters
Vas 1.0612 l equivalent air volume of suspension
n0 0.088 % reference efficiency (2 pi-radiation using Re)
Lm 81.63 dB characteristic sound pressure level (SPL at 1m for 1W @ Re)
Lnom 81.94 dB nominal sensitivity (SPL at 1m for 1W @ Zn)
Sd 30.68 cm² diaphragm area

 

 

Klippel Large Signal Identification (LSI) Results

Upon obtaining the small signal results above, I ran the Klippel LSI module to extract the ‘engineering data’ of motor and suspension characteristic curves and subsequent linear excursion values.

As with all my LSI testing, I ran the LSI module a couple times to see how varying the protection parameters altered the curve fit results.  The results were always nearly the exact same.  While I do this, I also am near the driver listening for deficiencies.  During the last run, when the protection parameters were relaxed a bit more, I noticed a mechanical noise that sounded like the voice coil hitting the backplate, so I let off the gas a bit and proceeded with the test without issue.  I note this because this tells me if you want to listen loud (and you very well may find you are doing so to compensate for the low sensitivity), you should listen for these noises or simply use a suitable high pass filter.

The below evidences a linear excursion (taken at 10% THD) of 3.5mm limited by the motor, while the suspension component of THD checks in at 4.4mm.

Displacement Limits thresholds can be changed in Processing property page
X Bl @ Bl min=82% 3.5 mm Displacement limit due to force factor variation
X C @ C min=75% 4.4 mm Displacement limit due to compliance variation
X L @ Z max=10 % >4.5 mm Displacement limit due to inductance variation
X d @ d2=10% 14.5 mm Displacement limit due to IM distortion (Doppler)
Asymmetry (IEC 62458)
Ak -2.53 % Stiffness asymmetry Ak(Xpeak)
Xsym -0.3 mm Symmetry point of Bl(x) at maximal excursion

ns3 Force factor Bl (X) ns3 Bl Symmetry Range NS3 kmsx ns3 Kms Symmetry Range NS3 cms ns3 lex ns3 lei

There’s a tilted offset in suspension here but doesn’t really seem to contribute much to the limitations of the driver, though, as it’s 2nd order dominated distortion on the low end near Fs where you’re likely already using a filter to limit excursion to some degree.  The use of a shorting ring is evidenced by the symmetry in coil in/out excursion, which should help to limit higher frequency intermodulated distortion (distortion borne from a driver playing low and high frequency content at the same time.. ie: music).  Overall, impressive results!

 

Frequency Response

The following on and off-axis curves were obtained by merging nearfield and farfield results together at approximately 450hz by use of the method described here.

NS3 FR 0 30 60

A very smooth on and off-axis response here with about +/1dB divergence in response on-axis from 200hz to 5000hz and f3 extension in to the low 70hz region.  A notch filter to tame the breakup at approximately 6.5khz (as evidenced by the off-axis response) should allow excellent on-axis response out to at least 10khz.  Though, as with any wideband/fullrange driver used past the point of beaming where the wavelength >> cone diameter, there is a large difference in sound level in the various measurement/listening axes as you increase in frequency.  For example, each curve follows the same trend and relative SPL until about 3khz where the response diverges.  At 10khz the difference from 0 degrees to 60 degrees is approximately 15dB.  Keep this in mind if you are concerned with articulation in the top octaves.  In other words, with drives like this, you’ll likely want to keep them on-axis (in my humble opinion).

Harmonic Distortion

Below I have provided data from 2 different sets of HD testing: 90dB at 1 meter and 96dB at 1 meter.  This is to provide you with an idea of how the output levels alter the distortion components.  Each test was done in the nearfield at a level that approximates both of the values given before.  96dB at 1 meter from one driver is pretty loud.

90dB/1m:

Fundamental + Harmonic distortion components (Relative to 90dB1m)

96dB/1m:

Fundamental + Harmonic distortion components (Relative to 96dB1m)

This is the same as above but provides up through 9th order HD.  I separated them for legibility.

Fundamental + Harmonic distortion components (Relative to 96dB1m) 9th order

Harmonic distortion (Relative to 96dB1m) Zoomed

THD Comparison of 90dB/1m vs 96dB/1m:

ns3 THD Comparison

/End

JL Audio C5-400cm Midrange

Up for test is a JL Audio C5-400cm midrange.  This is sold as a single unit (though, rarely in stock as such) or part of the JL Audio C5-653 component set.  I was interested in this driver as it seems to be of reasonable cost given the small form factor and mounting options in addition to the fact that it uses a Kurt Müller cone design, which is a well known cone manufacturer.

As shown in the pictures below, this driver comes with a mounting ring which allows it to be installed in a manner using the ring and covering grille (not shown).  The alternative, shown in the above provided link, is to use the driver with the mounting tabs.  When I initially received this driver I removed the tabs for install purposes and therefore this particular test is done with the mounting ring in place.  Keep this in mind when viewing the frequency response measurements.

To illustrate the difference with the ring attached, I have shown the driver with and without the ring.  Again, however, note that I have removed the tabs for my particular application.

IMG_5066 IMG_5062 IMG_5071 IMG_5073

IMG_5074 IMG_5075

Note in the pictures above the little bumps on the cone.  My guess is these 6 bumps are designed to help mitigate modal issues.  However, without testing this driver and cone without these bumps, it’s just an educated guess.

Physical Dimensions (from JL’s site)

Frame Outer Diameter* (A) 3.94 in / 100 mm
Grille Tray Outer Diameter** (B) 4.76 in / 121 mm
Magnet Outer Diameter (C) 2.83 in / 72 mm
Frontal Coaxial Tweeter Protrusion (D) N/A
Frontal Grille Protrusion*** (E) 0.83 in / 21 mm
Mounting Hole Diameter (F) 3.625 in / 92 mm
Mounting Depth (G) 1.62 in / 41 mm

Thiele-Small Parameters and Impedance Measurement

Electrical Parameters
Re 3.32 Ohm electrical voice coil resistance at DC
Le 0.168 mH frequency independent part of voice coil inductance
L2 0.237 mH para-inductance of voice coil
R2 2.21 Ohm electrical resistance due to eddy current losses
Cmes 362 µF electrical capacitance representing moving mass
Lces 4.55 mH electrical inductance representing driver compliance
Res 13.23 Ohm resistance due to mechanical losses
fs 124 Hz driver resonance frequency
Mechanical Parameters
(using test encl.)
Mms 4.87 g mechanical mass of driver diaphragm assembly including air load and voice coil
Mmd (Sd) 4.427 g mechanical mass of voice coil and diaphragm without air load
Rms 1.017 kg/s mechanical resistance of  total-driver losses
Cms 0.338 mm/N mechanical compliance of driver suspension
Kms 2.96 N/mm mechanical stiffness of driver suspension
Bl 3.668 N/A force factor (Bl product)
Loss factors
Qtp 0.751 total Q-factor considering all losses
Qms 3.731 mechanical Q-factor of driver in free air considering Rms only
Qes 0.935 electrical Q-factor of driver in free air considering Re only
Qts 0.748 total Q-factor considering Re and Rms only
Other Parameters
Vas 1.3742 l equivalent air volume of suspension
n0 0.269 % reference efficiency (2 pi-radiation using Re)
Lm 86.5 dB characteristic sound pressure level (SPL at 1m for 1W @ Re)
Lnom 87.32 dB nominal sensitivity (SPL at 1m for 1W @ Zn)
Sd 53.59 cm² diaphragm area

c5-400cm impedance

 

Large Signal Analysis with Klippel’s LSI Module

Displacement Limits
X Bl @ Bl min=82% 1.5 mm Displacement limit due to force factor variation
X C @ C min=75% 1.7 mm Displacement limit due to compliance variation
X L @ Z max=10 % 1.7 mm Displacement limit due to inductance variation
X d @ d2=10% 9.5 mm Displacement limit due to IM distortion (Doppler)
Asymmetry (IEC 62458)
Ak 40.93 % Stiffness asymmetry Ak(Xpeak)
Xsym 0.58 mm Symmetry point of Bl(x) at maximal excursion

c5400cm blc5400cm bl symmetryc5400cm kmsc5400cm kms symmetry c5400cm cms jl c5400cm lex c5400cm lei

 

Frequency Response

The following measurement was done by merging nearfield and farfield results together at 500hz to yield a quasi-anechoic result.  More details can be found on this method here.  The results are given at 0 degrees (on-axis) as well as off-axis at 30 and 60 degrees.

JL Audio C5-400cm FR

Harmonic Distortion

This test was performed in the nearfield at an SPL level equal to 96dB at 1 meter.

c5400cm FR HD with PHD Harmonic distortion (Relative to 96dB1m)

This is the same as above, just zoomed in for legibility.

Harmonic distortion Zoomed (Relative to 96dB1m)

HD Comparison

For those who may be curious how output levels drive the non-linear performance in terms of harmonic distortion, I have provided an example below.  In Red is the THD measured at 90dB/1m.  In Blue is the THD measured at 96dB/1m.

HD comparison

I did not pursue IMD testing of this driver simply due to time constraints.

Shameless plug alert:  If you like what you see here and what to help me out, there’s a Paypal Contribute button at the bottom of each data page.  Every little bit does help.  Heck, even a buck will buy a Payday to keep me going through the wee hours.

Scan Speak Illuminator 12MU/4731T-00

 

Below is the data obtained from Klippel (LSI only) testing of the Scan Speak Illuminator 12mu in 4 ohm version.  This 4.5″ midrange driver has the goods to deliver hefty bass for a nearfield, compact system or excellent midrange as part of a farfield speaker due to it’s excellent linear stroke (at 5.1mm one-way).  The use of shorting rings here help to lower IMD driven distortion (higher frequency distortion caused by pushing the driver to higher excursion levels).  To date, this is the best midrange driver I have tested and lives up to the Scan Speak name.

 

For Frequency Response measurements, please visit ZaphAudio.com (linked here) and scroll down to Sept 22, 2011.

 

Thiele-Small Parameters

Re 3.2947 ohms
Fs 74.3 Hz
Qes 0.3906
Qms 6.2385
Qts 0.3676
Zmax 55.9197 ohms
Le 0.1052 mH (@ 1khz)
Vas 3.9555 L
Sd 5857.538 mm^2
BL 4.7691 N/A
Cms 811.5327 um/N
Kms 123.2362 N/m
Mms 5.7625 g
Sens 87.8233 dB @ 1w/1m

 

Large Signal Analysis (LSI)

Displacement Limits thresholds can be changed in Processing property page
X Bl @ Bl min=82% 6.1 mm Displacement limit due to force factor variation
X C @ C min=75% 5.1 mm Displacement limit due to compliance variation
X L @ Z max=10 % >6.4 mm Displacement limit due to inductance variation
X d @ d2=10% 15.7 mm Displacement limit due to IM distortion (Doppler)
Asymmetry (IEC 62458)
Ak 10.55 % Stiffness asymmetry Ak(Xpeak)
Xsym -0.52 mm Symmetry point of Bl(x) at maximal excursion
Power Series
Bl0 = Bl (X=0) 4.7976 N/A constant part in force factor
L0 = Le (X=0) 0.15811 mH constant part in inductance
C0 = Cms (X=0) 1.3196 mm/N constant part in compliance
K1 0.00364 N/mm^2 1st order coefficient in stiffness expansion
Xpse 8.6 mm =-Xpse < X < Xpse, range where power series is fitted